Bank for International Settlements (BIS) published the results of the 2021 BIS survey on central bank digital currencies. The latest responses from 81 central banks show that the Covid-19 pandemic and the emergence of cryptocurrencies have accelerated the work on CBDCs. Nine out of 10 central banks are now exploring CBDCs, which account for over 90% of global GDP. In addition, this paper shows that more than two thirds of central banks are likely to issue a retail CBDC in the short or medium term. Many are exploring a CBDC ecosystem that involves private sector collaboration and interoperability with existing payment systems.

The study is available here: